1) Adults diagnosed with mild traumatic brain
injury (mTBI) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were treated
with EEG Biofeedback and cognitive training. Psychological and
neuropsychological tests were completed at pre-treatment and post-treatment and
compared to a normal control group that did not receive training, but was
tested on two occasions. The results showed significant improvement on full
scale attention and full scale response control score on the IVA
Continuous Performance Test. in the mTBI and ADHD groups compared to the
control group. Errors on a problem solving task decreased only in the mTBI
Ref: Tinius, T., & Tinius,
K.A. "Changes After EEG Biofeedback and Cognitive Retraining in Adults
with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder." Journal of Neurotherapy. 2000-2001; 4(2) 27.
2) 102 children with ADHD aged 8 to 12 years,
participated in the study. Children were randomly assigned to receive
either 36 sessions of neurofeedback training or a computerized attention skills
training program within two blocks of four weeks each. The
neurofeedback training consisted of one block of theta/beta training and one
block of slow cortical potential (SCP) training. Pre-training,
intermediate and post-training assessments were done using several rating
scales. Improvements in the neurofeedback treatment group (based on
parent and teacher ratings) were superior to those in the attention training
control group with an effect size of .60.
Ref: Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Vogel, C., et. "Is neurofeedback an
efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomised controlled clinical trial."
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 12 Jan 2009.
3) Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1976). EEG
and behavioral changes in a hyperactive child concurrent with training of the
sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): A preliminary report. Biofeedback &
Self-Regulation, 1(3), 293-306.
4) Lubar, J. F., Swartwood, M. O., Swartwood, J. N., & O'Donnell, P.
H. (1995). Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for
ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A., scores,
behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation,
5) Rossiter, T. R., & La Vaque, T. J. (1995). A comparison of EEG
biofeedback and psychostimulants in treating attention deficit/hyperactivity
disorders. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1, 48-59.
6) Linden, M., Habib, T., & Radojevic, V. (1996). A controlled study
of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with
attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities. Biofeedback &
Self-Regulation, 21(1), 35-49.
7) Thompson, L., & Thompson, M. (1998). Neurofeedback combined with training
in metacognitive strategies: Effectiveness in students with ADD. Applied
Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 23(4), 243-263.
8) Monastra, V. J., Monastra, D. M., & George, S. (2002). The
effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the
primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied
Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 27(4), 231-249.
9) Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J. H., &
Kaiser, J. (2003). Neurofeedback treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity
disorder in children: A comparison with methylphenidate. Applied
Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28, 1-12.
10) White, J.N., Hutchens, T.A., Lubar, J.F., (2005) Quantitative EEG
Assessment During Neuropsychological Task Performance in Adults with Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Adult Development, Vol. 12, Nos.
2/3, August 2005
11) Fox, D. J., Tharp, D. F., & Fox, L. C. (2005). Neurofeedback: An
alternative and efficacious treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(4), 365-274.
12) Beauregard, M., & Levesque, J. (2006). Functional magnetic
resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the
neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology &
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13) deBeus, R., (2006). Efficacy of Attention Training For Children with
ADHD: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Presented at ISNR 2006 Conference. Atlanta, GA.